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1Cross-Cultural Assessment Of Geriatric Depression: A Review Of The CES-D And The GDS           Associated table
2.  Gender Bias in the Measurement Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). 

Journal of Mental Health and Aging, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2001

Cross-Cultural Assessment Of Geriatric Depression: A Review Of The CES-D And The GDS .

Ada C. Mui, PhD

Denise Burnette, PhD

Li Mei Chen, MSW

Abstract:  

This article reviews published studies on the utility and psychometric properties of the two most widely used screening instruments for depressive symptomatology among older populations, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).  Studies on the CES-D confirms its usefulness for measuring depression in diverse groups of older adults, however, further research examining criterion validity among different cultural groups is needed.  Sociocultural and health-related factors appeared to influence differential patterns of item endorsement and factor structures of the CES-D in these studies.  The composition and hierarchy of factors varied: the well-being factor was consistently problematic in non-Western cultures, two rather than four factors were a better fit for data on Hispanic elders, the interpersonal problem factor was most salient for African Americans, and depressed affect and somatic factors were conflated for American Indians. Research on the psychometric properties of the GDS suggests that without alterations it may not be sufficiently valid for use in other cultures. 

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Psychiatry Research. (1993) 49:239-250

Gender Bias in the Measurement Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). 

Stommel M. 

Given BA

Given C.

Kalaian, HA

Schulz R..

McCorkle R. 

“Confirmatory factor-analytic models are used to examine gender biases of individual items of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. In samples containing 708 cancer patients and 504 caregivers of the chronically ill elderly, two CES-D items are identified as producing biased responses in comparisons of male and female respondents. Three additional CESD items are excluded on the basis of other psychometric problems, yielding a subset of 15 CES-D items that capture almost all the information of the original 20-item CES-D scale but are free of any gender bias. Gender differences in mean levels of depressive symptomatology are significantly reduced, but not eliminated, when the 15-item scale is used.” [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

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