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Mood and Affect abstracts and tables:

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1.  Assessment Of Depression In Patients With Dementia
2.  Cross-Cultural Assessment Of Geriatric Depression: A Review Of The CES-D And The GDS .
3.  Influence Of Cognitive Impairment, Illness, Gender, And African-American Status On Psychiatric Ratings And Staff Recognition Of Depression  
4.  Measuring Affect In Frail And Cognitively Impaired Elders

Journal of Mental Health and Aging, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1996

 Assessment Of Depression In Patients With Dementia

Ira R. Katz, MD, PhD

Patricia Paramelee, PhD

Abstract:   

Depressive disorders, both major depression and other less severe but nonetheless clinically significant depressions, are common comorbidities, components, or complications of dementia.   Recent research has shown that both the diagnosis of major depression and ratings of typical depressive symptoms can be conducted reliably, even in patients with dementia.  For individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment, self-ratings of depression with Geriatric Depression Scale appear to remain valid.  Among interviewer-administered instruments, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Cornell Scale are the best established.  Potential difficulties with assessment include problems with ascertainment (with families, in general, reporting greater depression than clinicians) and the ambiguity of symptoms (because apathy and related symptoms can result from both depression and Alzheimer’s disease).  Although diagnostic methods and rating scales developed with cognitively intact patients remain useful, there is need for further research to characterize the pathology of mood and affect that occurs in patients with dementia.  Approaches that show promise include multiple repeated self-reports of affect and direct observations of behavior.

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Journal of Mental Health and Aging, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2001

Cross-Cultural Assessment Of Geriatric Depression: A Review Of The CES-D And The GDS .

Ada C. Mui, PhD

Denise Burnette, PhD

Li Mei Chen, MSW

Abstract:    

This article reviews published studies on the utility and psychometric properties of the two most widely used screening instruments for depressive symptomatology among older populations, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).  Studies on the CES-D confirms its usefulness for measuring depression in diverse groups of older adults, however, further research examining criterion validity among different cultural groups is needed.  Sociocultural and health-related factors appeared to influence differential patterns of item endorsement and factor structures of the CES-D in these studies.  The composition and hierarchy of factors varied: the well-being factor was consistently problematic in non-Western cultures, two rather than four factors were a better fit for data on Hispanic elders, the interpersonal problem factor was most salient for African Americans, and depressed affect and somatic factors were conflated for American Indians. Research on the psychometric properties of the GDS suggests that without alterations it may not be sufficiently valid for use in other cultures. 

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American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2002, 10 (5) pp. 506-514

Influence Of Cognitive Impairment, Illness, Gender, And African-American Status On Psychiatric Ratings And Staff Recognition Of Depression

Jeanne A. Teresi, Ed.D., Ph.D.

Robert Abrams, M.D.

Douglas Holmes, Ph.D.

Mildred Ramirez, Ph.D.

Carol Shapiro, R.N.

Joseph P. Eimicke, B.S.

 Objective: The authors examined the multivariate relationships between depression recognition by staff members and characteristics of nursing home residents.  Methods: Analyses used a simple random sample of 270 residents, drawn from six randomly selected nursing homes, who were evaluated by psychiatrists for depression and depressive symptomatology. Results: African Americans were generally seen by psychiatrists as having less depressive symptomatology than residents from other ethnic groups.  The data suggest that nurse aides, perhaps because they see residents more often or because they are less influenced by demographic characteristics, may be the most valid source of information about residents= depression.  In contrast, after partialing out the degree of depression severity, nurses tended to overrecognize depression among African-American residents.  Social workers underrecognized depression among residents with cognitive impairment and/or Parkinson disease and among women, and overrecognized depression among African Americans. Conclusion: The results underline the need for more training in depression recognition, particularly in distinguishing social from clinical phenomena and in distinguishing symptoms of dementia from those of depression.  Equally important is further investigation of the potential biases associated with diagnosis and recognition of depression among African Americans. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

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Journal of Mental Health and Aging, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1976

 Measuring Affect In Frail And Cognitively Impaired Elders

Valorie Shue, BA

Cornelia Beck, PhD, RN, FAAN

M. Powell Lawton, PhD

Abstract:  

  Recognition of affect in frail and cognitively impaired (CI) elders may provide a means to target interventions and determine the outcomes of those interventions.  Several instruments are available to measure affect in frail and CI elders.  This article presents an overview of those instruments preceded by a rationale for measuring affect in frail and CI elders and an overview of the research on emotion.

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