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Measurement in a Multi-Ethnic Society


Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD

Columbia University Stroud Center, Faculty of Medicine

New York State Psychiatric Institute New York, New York 10032

Research Division, Hebrew Home for the Aged at Riverdale

Riverdale, NY 10471


 Anita L. Stewart, PhD

University of California San Francisco

 Institute for Health and Aging

Center for Aging in Diverse Communities

San Francisco, CA 94143


Leo S. Morales, MD, PhD

University of California Los Angeles

Department of Health Services, School of Public Health and

Division of General Internal Medicine and

Health Services Research, School of Medicine

RAND, Santa Monica, CA 90401


Sidney M. Stahl, PhD

Individual Behavioral Processes Branch

Behavioral and Social Research Program

National Institute on Aging,

 National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, MD 20892

Special thanks go to the members of the Measurement and Methods Cores of the 6 Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research at Columbia University, the Medical University of South Carolina, the University of California Los Angeles, the University of California San Francisco, the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, and the University of Michigan and Wayne State University, and to members of the Coordinating Center at the University of California Los Angeles. These individuals were instrumental in planning for this special issue

Additional thanks go to Douglas Holmes, PhD, for the generous donation of his time providing comments, reviews and editing with respect to early versions of the manuscripts

Special thanks also to Colleen A. McHorney, PhD, Co-Editor-in-Chief of Medical Care and of Outcomes Research, Merck & Co., Inc., and to John A. Fleishman, PhD, Deputy Editor of Medical Care and of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, for their support of this supplement and for the many hours that they spent reviewing and editing the manuscripts in this special issue

This work was supported by the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMAR), sponsored by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Nursing Research, and the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (Grant numbers: P30-AG: 15272, 15281, 15292, 15294, 21677, 21684)


M e d i c a l


Volume 44

Number 11 Supplement 3

November 2006



    S1    The National Institute on Aging's Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research: Contributions to Measurement in Research on Ethnically and Racially Diverse Populations

Sidney M. Stahl, PhD, and Anneliese A. Hahn, MS

Overview of the Volume: Editors' Summary

    S3    Measurement in a Multi-Ethnic Society: Overview to the Special Issue I

Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD, Anita L. Stewart, PhD, Leo S. Morales, MD, PhD, i and Sidney M. Stahl, PhD  

Qualitative Issues and Approaches


    S5    Overview of Qualitative Methods in Research With Diverse Populations: Making Research Reflect the Population

Anna M. Napoles-Springer, PhD, and Anita L. Stewart, PhD



    S10     Deconstructing Race and Ethnicity: Implications for Measurement of Health Outcomes

Jennifer J: Manly, PhD  


    Review of Methods

  S17    Methods and Frameworks for Crosscultural Measurement

 Timothy P. Johnson, PhD

  Examples and Applications

  S21    Using Cognitive Interviews to Develop Surveys in Diverse Populations

Anna M. Napoles-Springer, PhD, Jasmine Santoyo-Olsson, MSc, Helen O!Brien, BA, and Anita L. Stewart, PhD


  S31    Narrative and the Fundamental Limitations of Quantification in Crosscultural Research

Ronald J: Angel, PhD

  S34    The Use of Qualitative Methods to Improve Quantitative Measures of Health-Related Constructs

Neal Krause, PhD

Quantitative Issues and Approaches


  S39    Overview of Quantitative Measurement Methods: Equivalence, Invariance, and Differential Item Functioning in Health Applications

Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD


  S50    Classical Test Theory

Robert F. De Vellis, PhD

  S60    Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Analyses of Multi-Item Scales Assessing Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Dental Care

Ron D. Hays, PhD, Julie Brown, BA, Lorraine U. Brown, Karen L. Spritzer, BA, and James J: Crall, DDS, ScD


  S69    An Essay on Measurement and Factorial Invariance

William Meredith, PhD, and Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD

  S78    Do Self-Report Instruments Allow Meaningful Comparisons Across Diverse Population Groups? Testing Measurement Invariance Using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis Framework

Steven E. Gregorich, PhD


  S95    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): Overview, Sample, and Issues of Translation

Mildred Ramirez, PhD, Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD, Douglas Holmes, PhD, Barry Gurland, MD, and Rafael Lantigua, MD

  S107    Differential Item Functioning on the Mini-Mental State Examination: An Application of the Mantel-Haenszel and Standardization Procedures

 Neil J: Dorans, PhD, and Edward Kulick, MS

  S115   Differential Item Functioning Analysis With Ordinal Logistic Regression Techniques: DIFdetect and difwithpar

Paul K. Crane, MD, MPH, Laura E. Gibbons, PhD, Lance Jolley, MS, and Gerald van Belle, PhD

  S124   Identification of Measurement Differences Between English and Spanish Language Versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination: Detecting Differential Item Functioning Using MIMIC Modeling

Richard N. Jones, ScD

  S134   Identification of Differential Item Functioning Using Item Response Theory and the Likelihood-Based Model Comparison Approach: Application to the Mini-Mental State Examination

Maria Orlando Edelen, PhD, David Thissen, PhD, Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD, Marjorie Kleinman, MS, and Katja Ocepek- WelikYon, MPhil

  S143   Item and Scale Differential Functioning of the Mini-Mental State Exam Assessed Using the Differential Item and Test Functioning (DFIT) Framework

Leo S. Morales, MD, PhD, Claudia Flowers, PhD, Peter Gutierrez, MA, Marjorie Kleinman, MS, and Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD


  S152   Different Approaches to Differential Item Functioning in Health Applications: Advantages, Disadvantages and Some Neglected Topics

Jeanne A. Teresi, EdD, PhD


  S171 Comments on Methods for the Investigation of Measurement Bias in the Mini-Mental State Examination

Roger E. Millsap, PhD

  S176   When Does Measurement Invariance Matter?

Denny Borsboom, PhD


  S182   Good Practices for Identifying Differential item Functioning

Ronald K. Hambleton, PhD

Item Banking and Computerized Adaptive Testing

  S189   Item Banks and Their Potential Applications to Health Status Assessment in Diverse Populations

Elizabeth A. Hahn , MA , David Cella, PhD, Rita K. Bode, PhD, Richard Gershon, PhD, and Jin-Shei Lai, PhD


  S198   Special Issues for Building Computerized-Adaptive Tests for Measuring Patient-Reported Outcomes: The National Institute of Health's Investment in New Technology

Bryce B. Reeve, PhD


  S205   Assessing and Understanding Measurement Equivalence in Health Outcome Measures: Issues for Further Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry

Colleen A. McHorney, PhD, and John A. Fleishman, PhD